In any organization communication is very vital; there are two types of communication downward communication and upward communication. In downward communication the message comes from the top of management to the employees, it should be job direction, safety rules and business strategy. But in upward communication employees gives the feed back to the top management according to the new rules and business strategy. In sometimes break down comes in the communication like if top level management is conveying the message to the employees and not taking the feedback from the employees regarding the new strategy or just pushing the message to the employees without giving any suggestion that how it should be helpful for the employees. In upward communication there is also break down because employees are afraid form the top management they want to something different but due to hesitate they deliver the different thing
In Tesco store the store manager called the department manager in his office, when the department manager of Mr Shahid came in his office. He saw that store manager is busy with the phone, which is much unexpected thing for Mr Shahid. But the store manager was doing very important conversation on the phone. The store manager said to Mr Shahid please sit down and he cut the phone, but Mr Shahid was thinking about the phone conversation. The store manager started the conversation with Mr Shahid that we should have to increase the store budget and also tells about the last week budget and we will give the incentive to the all staff as well as said to Mr Shahid that you should have to tell the remaining staffs. The store manager said Thanks and started to examine the paper which he had on the table and waves the hand that he has nothing to say to the department manager.
The department manager wanted to say something to the store manager but he thought to keep quiet and said ok to the store manager.
. There are four types of prospective to make the effective communication.
Post Modern Perspective
The post modern perspective is opposite the modern perspective of communication. It argues the current trends like globalization and internet. According to this perspective they must be decentralisation of authority and power and people have more identity this perspective focus on critical approach to establish the communication.
Examining the Case Study:-
In the case study there are following communication break downs according to the post modern perspective.
One way communication
In the modern post perspective the communication is always two way communications, because in modern post perspective there is a decentralisation of the authority. But in the above case the store manager did not follow the post modern perspective because he was just delivering the message to the department manager. There is no feedback from the department.
According to post modern perspective both receiver and sender have must plan that what they are going to communicate. As the above case of tesco the store manager of tesco just said to the department manager of Mr Shahid we should have to increase the store budget. If the department manager knows that what we are going to change he must have some plans according to the budget to discuss with the store manager.
According to the post modern perspective the feedback is very important as well as all the communication perspective emphasis on it. As the above scenario there is no feed Mr Shahid wanted to say some but the store manager was not ready to listen to him, so Mr Shahid came out from his office without clearing the mind.
In the post modern perspective there must be clarity in the minds and they must be inattentive. But in the above case study the department manager of tesco was inattentive to the phone conversation. He did not listen message which the store manager gave to him, because his ambiguity was on the phone conversation.
No Time frame
There must be time frame in the post modern post perspective, but in the above tesco case study there is no time frame giving to the department manager that when and what period we have to increase the store budget, so there is a problem in the message about the time frame.
Transparency of Message
The crucial factor in post modern perspective is the transparency of message, but in the above case the delivered by the tesco store manager is not giving the clarity to the department manager of tesco Mr Shahid, may Mr Shahid have questions in the mind which they wanted to ask the store manager of tesco.
For example: How we can increase the store budget.
Who will the responsible for making the budget plans.
How can we give incentive to the employees?
If the budget will not achieve who will be affected.
The communication can be more effective and perspective through the involvement of employees as well as taking feedback from the employees, and the management should have to give permission to participate in the process of communication. The most important thing all the communication must be two way communications, because two way communications helps you to resolve the problems which often you get from the feedback.
Introduction of Communication:-
Communication plays very essential part in our lives, it is a spike of the world, and the meaning of communication is act or procedure of swapping information, communication can be in two persons or in a group. The communication process gives you permission to interrelate with the peoples; we are not able to share any information, experiences without communication. The communication among the people can be verbal or nonverbal.
Communication in business is very essential for business success, without business communication no business can run, communication in business suggest that how to communicate with the employees of the business as well as the clients or customers, which is very important for business progress. Communication in business is way to giving instruction to the employees as well as to attract the customers.
Process of communication:-
The process of communication is based on message whether received or sent. The information or message can be nonverbal or verbal. There are many different models which describes the process of communication very briefly. So we are discussing the model regarding the process of communication is Shannon’s Model.
Shannon’s Model of Communiication Process
In the Shannon’s Model there are 8 components of process of communication, which are given below.
An Information Source: In this components Shannon’s Model tells us about the person who produce or create the idea.
The Message: Message has core idea or information which you are going to communicate.
A Transmitter: Transmitter means Encoder a person who conveys the message or idea to the other person and also sure that the idea which is going to convey is accurate as well as in other words encoders means a person who is a creator of communication.
The Signal: In a communication there are many parallel signals. When communication is face to face posters, gestures and sounds are the signals in the communication, which is very important when communication is face to face.
Channel: Channel is a way of communication. It can be verbal like telephone, face to face meeting, and written. Channel is very essential part of the communication as well as in process of communication.
Noise: The very important component in the Shannon’s Model is noise during the communication. Noise may cause of miscommunication. It occurs in channel like when a person communicates with the other person face to face, during communication the telephone ring may cause the noise in the communication as well as miscommunication.
Receiver: In Shannon’ Model the concept of receive is a person who received the message from the encoder or transmitter as well as a person who listen the message. A message can be more than one receiver, mutually the message receive through ear and eyes.
A Destination: A person most probably who get through and process the idea or message.
Noise cause of miscommunication:-
There are many cause of miscommunication or failure of communication but the most important cause is noise. Noise is a hurdle of communication. Any kind of noise reduces the clarity of the message. In other words noises disturb the attention of sender and receiver. As it discussed in the Shannon’s Model, there are many types of noise such as physical, psychological, physiological and semantic.
Physical Noise: This noise is also called external noise that means any kind of stimuli which comes from the outside to make difficulty of receiver to listen the message. The example of this noise is when professor were giving the lecture in the class room and someone outside the class room were mowing the lawn. However in the class room there was a physical noise no one could listen the lecture, so physical noise may cause of communication failure.
Technical Noise: The involvement of technical noise is when the channel or medium of communication is not clear like telephone line.
Social Noise: The social noise occurs when the social cultural is different between the sender and receiver and persons who are include in the process of communication.
Psychological Noise: This noise is also called internal noise it refers to the person or communicator partiality, chauvinism, and emotion toward a message or a person. For example if someone is speaking to you and if your mind is strolling when somebody is chatting with you.
Physiological Noise: This noise is biological noise with the person who has migraine, due to this reason it is not every easy to speak and listen with the others.
Semantic Noise: Normally these noises occur when both persons like receiver and sender apply diverse meaning in to the similar message. Semantic noise basically is form from technical language or words which the sender send to the receiver and receiver take the different meaning of that technical language or words which may cause of failure of communication.
We should have to reduce the noise to effective communication, to reduce the physical noise we should analyse the source of physical noise and try to reduce it or overcome this problem. Psychological the sender and receiver must concentrate on the message and try to control the psychological noise. Semantic noise the sender and receiver must be aware of each other cultural if there are cultural differences the sender and receiver must concentrate on message positively keeping aside the cultural, when ever noises have been recognized. We should have to take the step to over the noise on the spot. In other word we can overcome the noises aware the sender or receiver to get better the communication flow.
In the business communication the noise is a barrier of communication or noises may cause of failure of communication. Business communication is very important for business to achieve the business goals. It is very important when communication is in process we should have to be careful about the noises, in the mean while noises are very bad in the communication process. It can fail the very important communication so we can not neglect the noises when we are doing communication.
What is Ethics:-
The word ethics is very simple; basically ethics provide a proper system of principles. It is very affective that how people are making their decisions and how they guide their lives. Basically ethics describes that what is better for individual as well as the society and also defined the good philosophy. The term of ethics is obtained from the Greek word ethos so the meaning of ethos is character, habit and custom.
Basically ethics cover the following dilemmas:
How we can live a good life.
It also tells about our responsibilities and rights.
The language which is we are speaking is wrong or right.
It also helps in our honourable decision.
Basically our idea of ethics is obtained from cultures, philosophies and religions.
What is ethical communication:-
In the small group ethics refers the proper interaction aspect in the group (NCA) The National Communication Association declare that the ethical communication is based on a person or human solemnity, worth by the looking after duty, equality, and truthfulness esteem for self and the others. In small groups the ethical communication are taking in the accounts responsibility and caring from oneself to the other group members.
Ethics in Communication:-
Ethical communication is a vital or essential to decision making as well as responsible or reasonable thinking and it also helps to create the relation among the communities in the light of across context, channel, media and cultures. In addition ethics also plays very important part in human like self respect, personal integrity, responsibility and truthfulness.
Recently NCA implemented a dogma for ethical communication. It’s some principle are more authentic in ethical communication.
In the good communication sincerity, accurateness and truthfulness are very essential.
Before estimating the message you should have to struggle and understand the communicators.
If we support the communication climate in the organization it is very unique for the individual communicators.
Criticize the communication which degrades the individuals and cause of violence.
The above principles are ethics in communication of NCA, because these principles of communication are encouraging the individuals in a small group. This is very effective for communication. So now we can say that in every small group as well as in large group ethics should be in communication to make effective communication. Ethics in communication means communicate without any fear and hesitate.
In other words ethical communication is a promoting communication that is based on common understanding and caring as well as it gives respect to the individuals.
Advantage of Ethics in business communication:-
There are many advantages of ethics in business communication, many business design their own guidelines of ethics, businesses may be publish the ethic in the form of code. This code demonstrates that how the business treats with the employees and clients of the business, such kinds of ethics is also echo of the business communication. If there is a good ethic in business communication then business can attract the customers and also the client which is very helpful for the business. However if business communication is unethical then business may lose the investor as well as customer which is cause of business failure. In business communication ethics is more clear when you see the business final statements like financial. Ethics in business communication is a key of success.